How Languages Are Learned: A Comprehensive Guide by Lightbown and Spada (PDF)
How Languages Are Learned Lightbown Pdf Download
If you are interested in learning more about how languages are learned, you might want to check out a book called How Languages Are Learned by Patsy M. Lightbown and Nina Spada. This book is one of the most popular and influential books on second language acquisition (SLA), which is the scientific study of how people learn languages other than their native one. In this article, we will give you an overview of what the book is about, why it is important, how you can download it in PDF format, what are some key takeaways from it, how you can apply its insights to your own language learning, and how you can learn more about it and its authors.
How Languages Are Learned Lightbown Pdf Download
What is the book about?
How Languages Are Learned is an introduction to SLA for language learners and teachers. It covers various topics and themes related to how languages are learned, such as:
The nature of language and communication
The similarities and differences between first and second language learning
The theories and models of SLA
The factors that affect SLA
The methods and approaches for teaching and learning languages
The research methods and findings in SLA
The book is written in a clear, accessible, and engaging style, with examples, anecdotes, diagrams, tables, charts, activities, questions, summaries, glossaries, references, and suggestions for further reading. It is suitable for both beginners and advanced learners who want to gain a deeper understanding of how languages are learned.
Why is the book important?
How Languages Are Learned is important because it provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of SLA, which is a complex and dynamic field that draws on insights from linguistics, psychology, sociology, education, neuroscience, and other disciplines. By reading this book, you will be able to:
Learn about the latest theories and research in SLA
Understand how your own and others' language learning experiences are shaped by various factors
Appreciate the diversity and richness of language learning processes and outcomes
Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of different methods and approaches for teaching and learning languages
Develop your own personal and professional goals and strategies for language learning and teaching
The book is also important because it bridges the gap between theory and practice, between researchers and practitioners, and between learners and teachers. It shows how SLA can inform and improve language teaching and learning, and how language teaching and learning can inform and inspire SLA.
How can you download the book?
If you want to download How Languages Are Learned in PDF format, you have several options. You can:
Buy the book from online retailers such as Amazon, Barnes & Noble, or Oxford University Press, and download it to your device or computer
Borrow the book from a library or a friend, and scan it or take photos of it with your phone or camera
Search for the book on online platforms such as Scribd, Academia, ResearchGate, or Google Scholar, and download it if it is available
Use a PDF converter tool such as Smallpdf, PDF2GO, or Zamzar, to convert the book from another format (such as EPUB, MOBI, or DOCX) to PDF
However, before you download the book, you should be aware of the following:
The book is protected by copyright laws, which means that you should not distribute, share, copy, or reproduce it without the permission of the authors or the publisher
The book is updated regularly, which means that you should check the edition and publication date of the book before you download it. The latest edition is the fifth edition, which was published in 2020
The book is best read in print, which means that you might miss some features or details of the book if you read it in PDF format. For example, you might not be able to see the colors, fonts, layouts, or images of the book clearly on your screen
Therefore, we recommend that you download the book only if you have a valid reason to do so, such as for personal use, academic purposes, or accessibility needs. Otherwise, we suggest that you buy or borrow the book in print format instead.
What are some key takeaways from the book?
How Languages Are Learned is full of valuable information and insights that can help you learn languages better. Here are some of the key takeaways from the book:
The role of input and interaction in language learning
Input is the language that learners are exposed to when they listen or read. Interaction is the communication that learners engage in when they speak or write. Both input and interaction are essential for language learning because they provide learners with opportunities to:
Notice new or unfamiliar language features
Comprehend the meaning and use of language in context
Practice and produce language output
Receive and provide feedback on language accuracy and appropriateness
Negotiate meaning and repair communication breakdowns
Develop fluency and confidence in using language
To maximize the benefits of input and interaction, learners should:
Seek out rich and varied sources of input that match their level, interest, and goal
Pay attention to both form and meaning of input
Use strategies such as guessing, inferring, predicting, summarizing, paraphrasing, questioning, annotating, reviewing, etc. to enhance input processing
Create opportunities for meaningful and purposeful interaction with native speakers or other learners
Use strategies such as initiating, responding, clarifying, confirming, elaborating, repeating, recasting, etc. to enhance interaction quality
Monitor their own output and seek feedback from others on their output
Use feedback constructively to improve their output and learn from their errors
The role of individual differences in language learning
Individual differences are the personal characteristics that make learners different from each other. Some of the most important individual differences in language learning are:
Age: The age at which learners start learning a language can affect their rate and ultimate attainment of language proficiency. Generally speaking, younger learners have more advantages in acquiring native-like pronunciation of the language, while older learners have more advantages in acquiring explicit knowledge and metalinguistic awareness of the language.
Motivation: The motivation that learners have for learning a language can affect their effort, persistence, and achievement in language learning. Generally speaking, learners who have intrinsic motivation (learning for personal interest, enjoyment, or satisfaction) and integrative motivation (learning to identify with or belong to a language community) tend to perform better than learners who have extrinsic motivation (learning for external rewards, pressures, or obligations) and instrumental motivation (learning for practical or utilitarian purposes).
Aptitude: The aptitude that learners have for learning a language can affect their ability and speed of learning a language. Generally speaking, learners who have high aptitude tend to perform better than learners who have low aptitude. Aptitude consists of several components, such as phonetic coding ability (the ability to perceive and remember sounds), grammatical sensitivity (the ability to recognize and manipulate grammatical structures), inductive learning ability (the ability to infer rules and patterns from input), and memory (the ability to store and retrieve information).
Learning styles: The learning styles that learners have for learning a language can affect their preferences and strategies for processing and organizing information. Generally speaking, learners who have compatible learning styles with their teachers, materials, or methods tend to perform better than learners who have incompatible learning styles. Learning styles can be classified into various dimensions, such as sensory (visual, auditory, kinesthetic), cognitive (analytic, global), personality (introvert, extrovert), or environmental (individual, group).
To overcome the challenges of individual differences, learners should:
Recognize their own strengths and weaknesses as language learners
Set realistic and specific goals for their language learning
Adapt their learning styles to different situations and tasks
Use a variety of strategies and techniques to enhance their learning
Seek out opportunities to interact with different types of learners and speakers
Monitor their progress and evaluate their outcomes
The role of feedback and error correction in language learning
Feedback is the information that learners receive about their language use from others or themselves. Error correction is a type of feedback that focuses on identifying and correcting the errors that learners make in their language use. Both feedback and error correction are important for language learning because they help learners to:
Notice the gaps between their interlanguage (the learner's current stage of language development) and the target language (the learner's desired stage of language development)
Understand the rules and norms of the target language
Modify their interlanguage to make it more accurate and appropriate
Prevent fossilization (the persistence of errors in the interlanguage despite exposure to input and interaction)
Develop self-regulation and autonomy in their language learning
To make the most of feedback and error correction, learners should:
Be open-minded and receptive to feedback and error correction from others
Ask for feedback and error correction when they need it or want it
Provide feedback and error correction to others when they ask for it or need it
Use different types of feedback and error correction depending on the purpose, context, and focus of the communication
Use different sources of feedback and error correction such as teachers, peers, native speakers, books, dictionaries, online tools, etc.
Use different modes of feedback and error correction such as oral, written, direct, indirect, explicit, implicit, metalinguistic, recast, elicitation, repetition, clarification request, etc.
Analyze and reflect on the feedback and error correction they receive or provide
Act on the feedback and error correction they receive or provide by revising or practicing their language use
The role of implicit and explicit knowledge in language learning
Implicit knowledge is the knowledge that learners have of the target language without being aware of it or able to explain it. Explicit knowledge is the knowledge that learners have of the target language by being aware of it or able to explain it. Both implicit and explicit knowledge are important for language learning because they contribute to different aspects of language proficiency. Generally speaking, implicit knowledge supports fluency, spontaneity, and naturalness of language use, while explicit knowledge supports accuracy, complexity, and appropriateness of language use.
To develop both implicit and explicit knowledge, learners should:
Engage in both implicit and explicit learning activities. Implicit learning activities are those that involve exposure to or use of the target language without focusing on form or rules, such as listening to songs, watching movies, reading stories, or having conversations. Explicit learning activities are those that involve attention to or analysis of the target language with a focus on form or rules, such as studying grammar, doing exercises, taking tests, or receiving explanations.
Balance between implicit and explicit learning activities depending on their level, goal, and style of learning. Beginners and intermediate learners might benefit more from implicit learning activities to build their confidence and fluency in using the target language. Advanced learners might benefit more from explicit learning activities to refine their accuracy and complexity in using the target language. Learners who are more analytic or deductive might prefer explicit learning activities, while learners who are more intuitive or inductive might prefer implicit learning activities.
resolve or prevent problems or difficulties that arise from implicit learning activities, or vice versa.
The role of first and second language transfer in language learning
Transfer is the influence that learners' first language (L1) or other languages (L2) have on their target language (TL). Transfer can be positive or negative. Positive transfer is when learners use their L1 or L2 knowledge or skills to facilitate their TL learning or use. Negative transfer is when learners use their L1 or L2 knowledge or skills to interfere with their TL learning or use. Both positive and negative transfer are important for language learning because they reflect learners' cognitive and affective processes in making connections and comparisons between languages.
To optimize positive transfer and minimize negative transfer, learners should:
Be aware of the similarities and differences between their L1, L2, and TL in terms of sounds, words, grammar, meaning, pragmatics, culture, etc.
Use their L1 or L2 as a resource or a tool to support their TL learning or use when appropriate. For example, learners can use their L1 or L2 to infer the meaning of unknown words, to remember new vocabulary, to explain grammar rules, to translate texts, to express emotions, to maintain identity, etc.
Avoid overgeneralizing or oversimplifying their L1 or L2 knowledge or skills to their TL learning or use when inappropriate. For example, learners should not assume that words that look or sound similar in different languages have the same meaning or usage, that grammatical structures that are common in one language are also common in another language, that speech acts that are polite or acceptable in one culture are also polite or acceptable in another culture, etc.
Learn from their errors and mistakes that result from negative transfer by analyzing the causes and effects of them, by seeking feedback and correction from others, by practicing and revising their TL use, by developing awareness and strategies to avoid them in the future, etc.
The role of social and cultural factors in language learning
Social and cultural factors are the aspects of the social and cultural environment that learners encounter when they learn or use a language. Some of the most important social and cultural factors in language learning are:
The social context: The social context is the setting or situation where language learning or use takes place. It includes factors such as the purpose, topic, mode, genre, register, style, etc. of communication. The social context affects language learning or use by shaping the expectations, norms, and conventions of communication.
The social identity: The social identity is the sense of self that learners have in relation to others. It includes factors such as the age, gender, ethnicity, nationality, religion, class, education, occupation, etc. of learners and speakers. The social identity affects language learning or use by influencing the attitudes, motivations, beliefs, values, and behaviors of learners and speakers.
The intercultural competence: The intercultural competence is the ability to communicate effectively and appropriately with people from different cultures. It includes factors such as the knowledge, awareness, skills, attitudes, and strategies of intercultural communication. The intercultural competence affects language learning or use by enhancing the understanding, respect, tolerance, and empathy of learners and speakers.
To benefit from social and cultural factors, learners should:
Explore different social contexts for language learning or use by exposing themselves to a variety of texts, media, genres, registers, styles, etc.
Adapt to different social contexts for language learning or use by adjusting their language choices and behaviors according to the purpose, topic, mode, genre, register, style, etc. of communication.
Reflect on their own social identity and how it affects their language learning or use by examining their attitudes, motivations, beliefs, values, and behaviors in relation to others.
Respect and appreciate the diversity of social identities among learners and speakers by acknowledging and accepting their differences and similarities.
Develop their intercultural competence by acquiring knowledge, awareness, skills, attitudes, and strategies for intercultural communication.
Engage in intercultural communication by interacting with people from different cultures and backgrounds using the target language.
How can you apply the book's insights to your own language learning?
Now that you have learned some of the key insights from How Languages Are Learned, you might be wondering how you can apply them to your own language learning. Here are some practical tips and suggestions for you:
Read the book carefully and critically. Don't just skim through the book or accept everything it says. Try to understand the main arguments and evidence of the book, and evaluate them based on your own experience and knowledge. Ask questions, challenge assumptions, make connections, and draw conclusions.
Do the activities and questions in the book. The book provides many activities and questions throughout each chapter to help you check your understanding, apply your knowledge, and reflect on your learning. Don't skip them or do them superficially. Try to do them sincerely and thoroughly, and compare your answers with others or with the answer key at the end of the book.
Use the book as a reference and a guide. The book is not meant to be read once and then forgotten. It is meant to be used as a reference and a guide for your ongoing language learning journey. Whenever you encounter a problem or a difficulty in your language learning, you can refer to the book for explanations, examples, or solutions. Whenever you need some inspiration or guidance for your language learning, you can consult the book for ideas, suggestions, or resources.
Share the book with others. The book is not meant to be read alone and then kept to yourself. It is meant to be shared with others who are interested in language learning. You can share the book with your friends, classmates, teachers, or online communities. You can discuss the book with them, exchange opinions, give feedback, ask questions, or collaborate on projects. You can also recommend the book to others who might benefit from it.
How can you learn more about the book and its authors?
If you want to learn more about How Languages Are Learned and its authors, you have many options. You can:
Visit the official website of the book at https://global.oup.com/academic/product/how-lang